1) L.P.G stands for Liquefied Petroleum Gas
2) L.P.G is heavier than air
Air = 1.0
This means that if released to the atmosphere both propane and butane will collect at low level. This is why it is important to insure that you have adequate drop holes so the gas can escape and prevent build up.
3) Small concentrations of L.P.G
Propane between 2% and 11%
Butane between 1.9% and 8.6%
by volume ,in air will provide a flammable mixture.
4) NEVER search for a gas leak with a naked flame,you never know how much gas is present!!
5) L.P.G has a higher Calorific value than natural gas
Natrural Gas - 1000 B.T.U's/ Cubic foot
Propane 2500 B.T.U's/ Cubic foot
Butane 3200 B.T.U's/ Cubic foot.
B.T.U Means British Thermal Unit. The calorific value of a flue is defined as "The amount of heat realised when a known quantify of flue is burned".
6) L.P.G is very searching,Butane and propane have a low viscosity which means they flow with ease.They will find any brake in the system, this is why an annual gas check is important.
7) L.P.G in its natural state has no smell,A stenching agent called Ethyl Mercaptan is added to enable detection by smell.
L.P.G draws heat from the cylinder walls to aid vaporisation.As long as the outside air remains above the boiling point of the gas, then gas will be produced.
This is why at the beginning and the end of the season Butane will not be as effective as Propane because the air temperature more often than not is around 14 degrees.the boiling point of butane. Propane can be used on even the coldest of Devon days.
9) L.P.G changes from a liquid to a gas when gas vapour is drawn out of the cylinder,dropping the pressure inside the cylinder.The gas boils using the heat from the air surrounding the bottle(this is why you should never rap the cylinder up as free circulation of air in required) producing more vapour, the pressure goes up and the boiling action stops.
The pressure inside the bottle ranges from 2 bar to 9 bar,the higher the temperature outside the bottle,the higher the pressure inside the bottle.At 15 degrees C it is at 7 bar.
Carbon Monoxide(CO) is produced when the normal combustion process is interrupted e.g there is insufficient air or contaminated air.This will cause incomplete combustion,gas and air will not burn completely,this is what causes Carbon Monoxide to be produced.CO is a toxic,tasteless,odourless,colourless and non irritant gas which is harmful to all humans and animals.
When we breath air into our lungs the oxygen combines with haemoglobin and is transported through the body.
when CO is inhaled it disrupts this process dramatically.Haemoglobin is 10 times more attracted to CO than oxygen so it will pick up CO instead of oxygen even when very small levels are present.
As more CO is inhaled less oxygen is absorbed into the bloodstream,this infect suffocated the victim without there knowledge.The onset of CO poisening affects the victims mental abitity and sudden exertion may cause collapse.
|% CO||Parts Per Mill(PPM)||Effects On Adults||% of CO in Blood|
|0.01||100||Slight headache in 2-3 hours||13%|
|0.02||200||Mild headache,dizziness,nausea,tiredness after 2-3 hours||20-30%|
|0.04||400||Frontal headache,nausea,1-2 hours.Risk to life after 3 hours||36%|
|0.08||800||Severe headaches,convulsions in 45 mins.Death possible after 2-3 hours.||50%|
|0.16||1600||Severe symptoms within 20 mins.Death possible in 1-2 hours||68%|
|0.32||3200||Severe symptoms within 5-10 mins.Death possible in 15 mins||70-75%|
|0.64||6400||Severe symptoms within 1-2 mins.Death in 15 mins||80%|
|1.28||12800||Immedaite symptons, death in 1-3 mins||85-90%|